Ethics, Moral and Social Responsibility Formation of Students: Contemporary Challenges for Catholic Schools in Thailand
To all Catholic School Administrators and Teachers :
In the year 2005, Professor Gerald Grace and Professor O'Keefe SJ. of the Institute of Education, University of London, asked me to answer the question: how Catholic schooling in Thailand through its education in "Ethics, religious, moral and social responsibility formation" responds to the contemporary challenges of secularization and western consumer culture. This study may be published in the lnternational Handbook of Catholic Education later.
Accordingly, my colleague and I set out to accomplish this task as soon as we could by searching and identifying certain elements in the social environment in which secularization and western consumer culture, through globalization and rapid advanced technology have penetrated the Thai society. For this purpose we have referred to the findings published by ABAC Poll and other mass media in Thailand.
As solution to the problem, I made good use of the Deliberations of our Annual National Convention of Catholic Schools starting from 1969 till the present day. I consider them as most effective measures and means to educate and to form the character of children in our schools. Also in this study, I have asked the Assumption University Center for lnstitutional Research to survey our schools' supplementary activities in their moral and social responsibility formation, given in our schools.
I hope this booklet will serve as a handbook containing useful guidelines for our schools in "Ethics, religious, moral and social responsibility formation" of Catholic school youth in Thailand.
Introduction : The Challenges in Thailand
The Catholic Education Council of Thailand stated the vision of Catholic Education Management under such headings as "Learning Persons, Loving and Caring Community, Reaching for Human Excellence According to Christian Principles" (1995).* To achieve the above-mentioned vision, various teaching and learning processes have to be provided simultaneously and consistently. It covers three forms of education: formal education, non- formal education, and informal education, involving all levels: pre-school, primary and secondary, and higher education.
The social environment is dynamic and has changed dramatically in many attributes such as society itself, culture, economy, science and technology, politics, population, and so on. For example, due to the technological advancement today mobile phones have become so cheap that they have become a toy for the primary and middle school level students. These mobile devices facilitate all kinds of abusive acts, for instance pornographic photo taking and circulating images among their friends. Cultural change has taken place in the form of consumerism in urban societies, especially major metropolitan cities e.g., Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Phuket, etc and other cities as well. From economic standpoint Thailand has enjoyed a steady economic growth since it recovered from the Asian financial crisis in 1997-1998. Thailand is doing well in managing its economic development especially its investment in the Mega Projects.
However, the impact of secularization and western consumer culture is a global phenomenon, which is not a unique concern for the Thai culture. The impact of secularization and western consumer culture is deep rooted in almost every culture especially in the developing economies. Hence, the Thai youth are not free from western immoral and sexually permissive behaviors. The Catholic school youth are a part of greater Thai society hence; they are not immune from this influence. Moreover, the technological development has expedited the process of cultural colonization.
Technology has created one single global village and its pace of penetration is very fast in the heart of any modern society. Hence, we do not want to blame our children due to these influences. We believe Thai children have strong cultural ties; this is evidenced by one of the fast food chains (i.e.,McDonald's) which is facing an eroding sales and market share in Thailand, despite their heavy advertising which targets mainly the younger consumers. These attributes have effects and influence both directly and indirectly on how to administer and manage education. Teaching and learning process has to be adapted, adjusted, and improved to come up with the changes so that the graduates of Catholic schools gain knowledge and live happily in the society.
Ethics and morals are very vital in the formation of students in Catholic schools. That is the strategic direction in providing teaching and learning process according to the Catholic educational philosophy. Social responsibility as well is vital. Catholic education takes social justice and social responsibility seriously. The Episcopal Conference of Thailand through its commission for social justice and peace has urged Catholic institutions to propagate the social values of the children in the country. That's why all the Catholic schools are concerned to create justice for all. For cxample, many Catholic schools in Thailand have adopted social justice as a part of their extra-curricular activities. As a part of the program students visit and work as volunteers in slum areas. This is to create consciousness among them with love for justice and social values. Rural developments have been initiated by senior students to participate in social works. Also, during the Christmas fair they raise funds to help slum areas by establishing facilities for pure drinking water.
Hence, various activities in many schools have to form and support the above-mentioned characteristics within students with activities in teaching and learning process included in the curriculum : supplementary activities and extra curriculum activities.
Moral, Ethical, Religious and Social Challenges
The Education Ministry's measures for fighting immoral behavior among children have been criticized for failing to tackle the prohlems head-on. The ministry's steps include classifying bad behavior into eight groups and forming special "problem-solving" panels.
Experts working on issues relating to youth said problems must be tackled "at the roots" with the participation of young people, and with the introduction of clear policies to bolster the family institution and promote social order. An adviser to ministry urged schools to provide more opportunities to study morals.
The views were expressed by about 300 representatives of social groups, state agencies, academics, students and school executives during a recent ministry workshop (towards the end of 2005) to promote morality among youth.
The chairman of the committee for promoting morality for the benefit of the country, said he disagreed with the classification of eight forms of bad behavior and the setting up of more panels. The eight forms of bad behavior are addiction to liquor and cigarettes, skipping classes at school, premature sex, gambling, addiction to computer games, spending money lavishly and resorting to violence.
The former secretary-general of the National Economic and Social Development Board said the measures did not get to the root causes. These root causes are mainly, lack of proper sex education, abusive use of media like internet, television, etc. are the sources of all these social vices.
He suggested the ministry look at the problems systematically and tackle them comprehensively by allowing the participation of representatives of young people with the cooperation of relevant non-governmental organisations. He also urged politicians, be they MPs or the prime minister, to act as role models for youth.
The director of Chulalongkorn University's Educational Policy Research Centre, urged the government to introduce clear policies to "decrease immoral areas and increase virtuous areas" for youth and boost the strength of the family institution. Moral woes concerning youth stemmed from a lack of social controls and order amid a plethora of offensive materials accessible to children1.
Catholic Education in Thailand
The 16th century was an important era for Siam (Thailand). At this period contacts with European powers were made through trade. Ayutthaya being the capital well known for its hospitality attracted Europeans and Asians alike. The first missionaries to come to Thailand were Portuguese: the Dominicans in 1554, the Franciscans in 1583 and the Jesuits in 1606. Then came the French. The first missionaries of the Foreign mission of Paris came in 1660. Five years later, they had "a theology school, a school for boys sent by the King, and a small school for Christians." This school was called "General College" Later on parish schools were opened in provinces along with churches e.g., at Phuket, in the South, 1671; at Lopburi, in 1673; at Bangkok, in 1674; at Phitsanulok, in 1675; at Chonburi, in 1707.
After the kingdom of Siam was reestablished in Bangkok in 1767, the French missionaries resumed their educational work in the new capital. From the record of the mission, we find new schools opened in 1796, at Sancta Cruz; in 1772, at Calvary Church; in 1785, at the Assumption parish; in 1834 at St.Franscis Xavier parish, SamSen (Pallegoix, 1855;307).
Formation & Catholic Schools in Thailand
Prior to 1969 Before the Vatican Council II, each teaching Congregation2 managed its own schools according to its philosophy of education and policies. Church directives especially in the form of Papal Encyclicals had always been faithfully adhered to which served as unifying force for Catholic schools. After the Vatican Council II, all teaching Congregations came together to discern the spirit and the search for common objective in the light of Vatican Council's Declaration on Christian Education. Before 1965 the Catholic schools were loosely organized as a movement until they became well established in 1969 as Catholic Education Council placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishops' Conference of Thailand.
Deliberations on the moral and social formation in Catholic schools between 1969 and 1979
At the National Convention of Catholic Schools held in 1969, the Catholic Education Council formulated a general policy for Catholic schools and it has been adhered to ever since*
1. AIM AND NATURE OF THE CATHOLIC SCHOOL IN THAILAND - The aim of the Catholic school is the full development of the human person according to Christi an principles.
2. THE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF THE CATHOLIC SCHOOL IN THAILAND
2.1 The Catholic school "aims to create for the school community an atmosphere enlivened by the gospel spirit of freedom and charity." (cf. GE no.8)
2.2 The School must also provide its students with ample opportunities to take upon themselves personal and social responsibilities according to their age and maturity 2.3 The School administration a) will pay special attention to contemporary needs; (cf. GE no.9)b) will be equipped with educational skills which reflect modern day findings; (ef. GE no.8)c) will give an increasing share in the formulation of policies and the administration of the schools to the teaching staff;d) will show special concern for the needs of the poor3or of those who are deprived of the assistance and affection of a family or who are strangers to the gift of faith ; (cf. GE no.9)e) will perform their services as partners of the parents; (cf. GE no.5)f) will give serious consideration to all the directives and orientations emanating from the Ministry of Education.
3. THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE CATHOLIC SCHOOL TO THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND TO OTHER RELIGIONS IN THAIILAND
The Catholic Education Council recommends
3.1 that the Catholic school be a centre for dialogue with other religions; 3.2 that the Catholic school form youths according to the positive content of their faith; 3.3 that the Catholic school foster an attitude of mutual respect and understanding among youths of different religions4; 3.4 that the Catholic school promote the cultural heritage of the country as a means of expressing religious values; 3.5 that the Catholic school consider the formation of Catholic youth a primary duty.
At the National Convention of Catholic schools held in 1979, the Catholic Education Council re-examined the common aim of the Catholic School in Thailand. It has unanimously adopted the following elaboration on the aim of the Catholic School formulated in 1969:
"The Catholic School is committed to the development of the whole man, according to Christian Principles. For this reason, the Thai Catholic School is in service of both Catholic and non-Catholic student. It helps each to develop the ability to think for himself and to develop his own judgment. Each student is expected to seriously explore his religious tradition; the Catholic to deepen his commitment to Jesus and the Church; the non-Christian to explore his own religious heritage, and both to be spiritually enriched by each other." And each will he assisted to integrate his faith with the demands of social justice; initiatives for social justice should increasingly be taken together especially among alumni. The guiding principle for both Catholic and non-Catholic is the realization that the faithfulness of their involvement depends on the vitality of their faith."
The above statements are, in a way, indications of the kind of moral and social formation and training of character children receive in Catholic schools, bearing in mind that Thailand is a Buddhist country and that ninety percent of students attending Catholic schools are Buddhists. Therefore every Catholic school in an ecumenical spirit, is supposed to strive for these common aims and policies while respecting particular characteristics of each school.
Furthermore every year Catholic school administrators come together during the annual conference to exchange their viewpoints concerning moral and social fOrmation of their students. As a result, school administrators themselves had to undertake certain pedagogical trainings especially "Reflective Pedagogy", Ignatius Pedagogy6 designed for effective teachers in Catholic schools. Besides this, School administrators have to undergo some other training from time to time as needs arise.
During the course of further fOrmation, the administrators also learn how to implement changes with regard to religious and moral formation of their students. For example, how to teach catechism to catholic students and at the same time how to teach morals to non-catholic students. Accordingly, an academic committee was formed to rewrite a new curriculum on catechism based on the life of Christ to fit in with the country's culture; the committee also prepared moral lessons for other students. In all cases, all studies are based on the Vatican II's teaching especially the decrees on Christian Education, the Church in the Modern World and Religious Freedom. For us this is "the full development of the human person according to Christian principles."
The National Convention of Catholic schools of 1979 has significant bearing on Catholic schools in that it re-examined the aim of the Catholic School, formulated in 1969, in the light of 'The Catholic School,' a document issued by the Sacred Congregation for Christian Education, in 1977.
Besides, the 1979 National Convention also discussed at length the position paper on "Mission and Education" proposed by the Asian Bishops' Conference. Its final deliberations have been accepted as Guiding Principles for Catholic schools in Thailand which confirm some of the deliberations of 1969 and 1979.
The National Convention of Catholic Schools of 1982 emphasized "the education in value for the societies of the year 2000" This study was done in the General Assembly of the International Office of Catholic Education held in Bangkok. The four values to be inculcated in pupils by all Catholic schools are:
respect for others
Respect for others as others is a value to be stressed in Thai education that excels in traditional hospitality. The present evolution of society makes such an education an urgent priority: development of pluralism in societies, the necessity of democratic participation and of protecting minorities, the acceleration of democratization in education, etc. these tendencies call for great tolerance between the citizens of a society.
In the classroom or the school setting, "Respect for others as others" implies initiating pupils into social life in the broader sense:
Respect for each pupil and the acceptance of differences
Learning the art of dialogue and team-work
Respect for the pledged word and or just authority
A knowledge of each person's rights and duties
Relations founded on justice and the promotion of the common good,
Respect for the environment.
Responsible solidarity could arouse the suspicion of sociologists. They are wary of hollow. words about universal brotherhood. What is essential is a social analysis enabling us to set our own country in thc global context of international relations; similarly, a reflection on the running of the school establishment is urgently required: selection. elitism. corruption, indifferencc. social ineffectualness has to be examined.
In particular, solidarity is taught through progressive actions and initiatives7. In the Asian context. it means "responsibility and collaboration."
Creativity is a value to bc inculcated in the Catholic schools. It means "active methods". the pedagogy of exploration and discovery. education in divergent and convergent thinking. team-work and pedagogy of encouragement and support8. Creativity should not serve as a refuge for individualism and self-interest.
Inferiority is another good value for Catholic schools. In the Asian context. it means teaching children to pray together. In Thailand. we have a common morning prayer for all pupils. whether they are Catholics or not. It is composed for all religions. So also. there is a common afternoon prayer at the end of the school day. Furthermore, children especially secondary school pupils should be guided towards the interior life; towards the values of silence. personal meditation and prayer. Actually, the practice of Buddhist meditation is also encouraged in Catholic schools.
Education in values has been given to school administrators and teachers in the form of seminars many times. All Catholic schools have been encouraged to have their own value system such as honesty. responsibility, generosity, self-discipline, etc. along with the nation's values: Country, Religion, and the King.
To conclude, the deliberations of 1969, 1979, and 19829 presented above are recommendations proposed to all Catholic schools to put to practice in their educative evangelization while respecting individual school's initiative and creative thinking. Whether or not all schools have done it to their utmost is the question of every school's faithfulness to their consciences. In general, we can rest certain that all Catholic schools have tried their best to give Christian education to children entrusted to them as witness to their faith in God10.
Research on Catholic Schooling: Existing Studies and Future Needs
Thailand's Office of Catholic Education Council is established on the campus of Assumption University (AU) Ramkhamhaeng 24 Bangkok 10240. It has been there since 1975 and the Catholic Education Council makes use of AU's Institutional Research Center for its studies on various topics of interest, one such research center is ABAC Poll.
A survey by ABAC poll during the St. Valentine's day in 2005. This survey is a product of ABAC Poll Research Center at Assumption University of Thailand. supported by the Department of Disease Control at the Ministry of Public Health. The survey presents patterns or sexual value and risk behavior of Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Valentine's Day among Thai Youths, aged 14-25, in Bangkok Metropolitan Area.
ABAC Poll staff members administered the survey to eligible young people at their households during January 24 - February 9, 2005. Participation was voluntary. Questionnaires were self-administered. The stratified multi-stage sampling was applied for selecting participants. There were 1,513 respondents in the survey.
The findings showed that 39.50% of total respondents attached importance to Valentine's Day. After estimating; it was found that 97,372 out of 818,166 or 11.90% of young people in Bangkok intended to have sex on the day. Somewhat alarmingly for traditional Thai morals. the survey showed that 23.80% of respondents who had previous experience in having sex tended to have more than one sexual partner. Moreover, 22.70% of the people made the decision to have sex with someone after knowing them for less than a day and 6.7% reported that they had engaged in having group sex. According to the risk sexual behavior of catching sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., HIV / AIDS), there was a public health concern because the currently sexually active youths sometimes using condoms and those who had never used condoms were 39.50% and 19.60%, respectively.
The survey results also found that 40.90% of total respondents agreed wilh the vending machine of condoms available in their schools or universities, however,.36.50% disagreed and 22.60% did not have any comments. We may say that knowledge without awareness of the risk did not determine whether or not Thai Youths in Bangkok engaged in having safe sex.
In conclusion. the survey shows that many youths in Bangkok would have sex on Valentine's day and other unsafe sexual activities (e.g .. failing to use condoms. having group sex. having more than one sexual partner). Therefore. the Ministry of Public. Health and other related agencies to this situation should have a strong and very active health campaign against their risky behavior of sexually transmitted diseases.
A study was designed to understand how far the activities organized by Catholic schools under the umbrella of Catholic Education Council of Thailand help students to develop their ethical, moral and social responsibilities.
The result from this study will let the concerned personnel know the value and the kind of activities which Catholic schools under the umbrella of Catholic Education had organized for their students. This result may be used as benchmark of improvement and adjustment of Catholic Education system in Thailand.
A survey has been carried out with 70 Catholic schools in Thailand to understand how they preach the ethical, moral, and social responsibilities to the students. The respondents of the study comprised of diocesan schools. schools run by Teaching Congregations, and the schools run by Lay Catholics.
For this pilot study; out of 306 Catholic schools in total number, there were 70 Catholic schools as the samples, which provided as 38 schools administered by dioceses, 25 schools administered by religious groups. and 7 schools administered by lay people. Findings from the survey by Assumption University Center for Institutional Research (AUC1R) between June and July 2005 of all Catholic schools in the country show how the morals and social teaching is conducted in the schools. The findings are as follows:
1. Moral Formation
1.1 The survey on activities in teaching and learning process included in the curriculum conceming ethics and moral formation provided to students resulted as:
The most important activity in teaching and learning process included in the curriculum concerning ethics and morals formation provided to students was adding learning integration on ethics and morals in every subject of learning groups by 44 schools (62.9 percent).
The second was teaching Catechism to Catholic students and daily homeroom activity in the morning for knowledge of ethics and morals, each equally by 1.9 schools (27.1 percent). The third was classroom for teaching religion, ethics, and morals by 17 schools (24.3 percent).
The other activities were formulating teaching plans to support ethics and morals by 13 schools (18.6 percent), providing the quality of life and ethics development's hour by 8 schools (11.4 percent), and providing and ethics course as an elective course by 3 schools (4.3 percent).
1.2 The survey on supplementary activities added to the curriculum for formatting ethics and morals resulted as:
All Catholic schools as the samples (100 percent) supplemented activities for important religious days to the curriculum for ethics and morals formation in students. The next supplementary activities were ethics camp11 for better state of mentality by 41 schools (58.6 percent), activities promoting ethics and on ethics and morals lectured by priests or religious by 15 schools (21.4 percent), promoting students activity clubs according to different religions by 8 schools (11.4 percent), and religious practising on important religious days by 3 schools (4.3 percent).
1.3 The survey on extra activities added to the curriculum for ethics and morals formation in students resulted as:
It was found that the most extra activity added to the curriculum for ethics and morals formation in students were social activities useful for community by 16 schools (22.9), certificates granted to well-behaved students by 6 schools (8.6 percent), and promoting students to take part in ethical concerned activities held by external organizations and activities of practicing meditation, each equally by 19 schools (5.7 percent).
2.1 The survey on activities concerning teaching and learning process included in the curriculum concerning social awareness and responsibility formation provided to students resulted as:
It was found that the most activity concerning teaching and learning process included in the curriculum concerning social awareness and responsibility formation provided to students was adding learning integration on ethics and morals in every subject of learning groups by 42 schools (60.0 percent). The next ones were developing analytical skills in social study such as new analyzing by 8 schools (11.4 percent), daily homeroom activities in the morning by 6 schools (8.6 percent), adding knowledge concerning local community (local widom) in concerned courses by 4 schools (5.7 percent), and specifying social responsibility as one of the required admirable characteristics of well-behave students in curriculum by 2 schools (2.9 percent).
2.2 The survey on supplementary activities added to the curriculum concerning social awareness and responsibility formation provided to students resulted as:
The most supplementary activity added to curriculum concerning social awareness and responsibility formation provided to students was Boy-Scouts and Girl-Guides activities by 21 schools (30.0 percent). The second was activities supporting important events such as Earth Day, World Environment Day, and so on by 12 schools (17.1 percent). The third was activities supporting social awareness and responsibility by 10 schools (14.3 percent). The fourth was counseling activities aimed to make students aware of their goal and duties by 9 schools (12.9 percent).
The next activities were educational trips aimed to make students understand social environment and special guest speakers for specific knowledge such as sex education, drug abuse. and so on, each equally by 5 schools (7.1 percent), and military training course for students by 4 schools (5.7 percent).
2.3 The survey on extra activities added to the curriculum concerning social awareness and responsibility formation provided to students resulted as:
The most extra activity added to the curriculum conceming social awareness and responsibility formation provided to students was activities supporting charity and donation for society by 55 schools (78.6 percent). The next activities were activities supporting democracy12 by 27 schools (38.6 percent), activities supporting school and community's cleanliness by 20 schools (28.6 percent), activities supporting anti-drugs by 19 schools (5.7 percent), activities supporting social responsibility and self-responsibility by 17 schools (24.3 percent), activities supporting environmental preservation by 14 schools (20.0 percent), activities supporting energy saving by 9 schools (12.9 percent), activities supporting maintenance of local cultures by 7 schools (10.0 percent), activities supporting consumerism13 by 3 schools (4.3 percent).
Agenda for Future Research
Based on the findings of this study, numerous future researches can be initiated. One such study may be directed to understand, what are most effective and efficient pedagogy to create socially and morally responsible youths. Also, research needs to be directed to understand, what else is to be incorporated into the existing curriculum that will foster a better social and moral awareness among these youths.
The leadership of the various Catholic schools in Thailand considers the teaching of ethics and the instilling of concepts of moral and social responsibility as matters of great importance. At a time when traditional values are declining and many youngsters tend to be afflicted by social ills such as drug addiction. delinquency. violence and crime the schools are stepping up efforts to disseminate the virtues of love, devotion, harmony and the rules of conduct as taught by the Catholic Church. His Eminence Michael Cardinal Michai Kitbunchu, chairman of the Catholic Education Council has confirmed that such duties and responsibilities are considered as sacred and mandated and the schools under the guidance of the Bishops' Conference of Thailand shall continue in these endeavors for strengthening and fortifying human values and the society at large.
Br. Martin Prathip KOMOLMAS, f.s.g.
Dr. M. Asif Salam
31 July 2006
1Anecdotal evidence suggests that, the influence of Internet is almost impossible to control. Internet Cafe is are open on 24 hours a day and 7 days a week basis which impedes the social life of these students by keeping them away from parents. Moreover, many of these parents have no knowledge of these modern technologies; hence. they also have no idea of the purpose why their kids are busy with these machines.
2The Brothers of St. Gabriel. De La Salle Brothers, St. Paul de Chartres Sisters. Thc Ursulines, The Salesians. Sisters of the Sacred Heart. Lovers of the Cross, Sisters of the Holy Infants Jesus, etc.
3Schools serve the poor by providing scholarships or other forms of financial aid given to the needy students; especially in the parochial schools. Sometimes, up to 80% of the students are given free education.
4The majority of the students in the Catholic schools in Thailand are predominantly Buddhists, followed by Christians, and others religions.
5by Rev.Daven Day, S. J. 1979
6A pedagogy of St. Ignatius of Loyola which was a course designed by the Jesuits in Australia for effective teachers in Catholic schools.
7For example, at the schools now-a-days courses are not evaluated not only on the basis of examinations but also students are divided into teams and assigned team projects to foster collaboration and sense of responsibility
8Same explanation, please refer to endnote 7, and also to Rev. EKWA bis ISAL, S.J. in bibliography No.3.
9The above mentioned dates are the major milestones of Catholic thinking as a result of deliberations of Vatican II. Hence, despite further developments made in the later years but those developments were in line with the major deliberations of Catholic Education Management under such headings as "Learning Persons, Loving and Caring Community, Reaching for Human Excellence According to Christian Principles."
10They ask for annual convention of Catholic schools administrators. But these deliberations are not better than the main principles. These deliberations are built on the previous three deliberations and these need to be adopted from time to time.
11The activities in ethics camp includes, visit to rural areas or slum areas with an objective to help the deprived community of the Thai society. A wide range of activities are performed within these 3 to 4 days ethics camps.
12These educational activities are designed to create social awareness regarding their duties and responsibilities as a member of a civil society.
13To make these youths realize the down-side of consumerism or consumer culture.
Catholic Education in Thailand in the Eighties by Br. P Martin Komolmas, f.s.g., Ph.D. secretary general of the Catholic Education Council of Thailand (1965-1995). It was a study originally intended as a report to the Sacred Congregation for Christian Education, made possible by the grant from His Excellency Archbishop Renato Raffaele Martino, Apostolic Pro-Nuncio, and the Catholic Education of Thailand.
Christian Missionaries and Thai education, a study of the impact of Christian missionaries on Education in Thailand. (1662-1910). by Br. Joseph van Khoi, f.s.c ., Ph.D. La Salle Brothers. Thailand. 1975. It was a doctoral dissertation presented in 1972 at the Graduate school of St. Louis University, U.S.A.
Education in Values for Societies in the year 2000. (1983), Editor in Chief: EKWA bis 1SAL S.J., 60 Rue des Eburons - 1040 Brussels.
Recommendations from Annual Seminars of Catholic Schools 1969-1995.